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Emanuela Calcio Gaudino, Silvia Tagliapietra, Stefano Mantegna, Giancarlo Cravotto
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Heterocycle formation reactions require efficient catalysis and suitable physical activation. Sonochemistry and mechanochemistry can dramatically promote heterocyclizations in heterogeneous conditions using benign solvents and even in solventless conditions by means of ball mills. Besides facilitating quick cyclization, these technologies bring with them safer protocols, cost reduction, energy saving, process intensification, and waste minimization. The aim of this review is to describe a number of relevant synthetic advances in the lasttwo years and to highlight the huge unexploited potential of both sonochemistry and mechanochemistry.


heterocycles; ball mill; cyclization; green chemistry; ultrasound

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Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis - Aizkraukles iela, 21, Riga, LV-1006, Latvia -